But did not the two and four years before in India loudly zazvuchalo word "satyagraha". Again, it was the cause of an unjust law (Bill) passed the English 18 March, 1919. Once again turn to history. India already. Has long been one of the colonies of the British Crown. As with any colony, her mercilessly bleed. nischaet country every year. The people of India to see the dream home is not poor and hungry, but happy, rich, powerful, worthy of its great ancient culture. And what colony did not wish the same? But … England too strong, they say everything. And the peoples of India not to wear, hold, to have arms. It has to be cautious talk of the country the status of dominion. And here is a chance for freedom. Englishmen have started a reform to change the system of governance in India. On behalf of the sponsors, it is called "Montagu-Chelmsford reforms". According to her, the Indian authorities will not only be appointed from London, but partly elected by the Indians. Planned and other concessions. And while eakonoproekt far from radical, but maybe this is just the first step towards the democratization of India? The truth is, the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms has been delayed. This is understandable and the First World War, all the forces left to fight with the enemy. The Indians did not remain on the sidelines they are ready to assist the crown in a difficult moment, not without a back thought that their help will be appreciated and to speed up reforms. Gandhi even encourages them to actively join the British army that in the mouth of the well-known at that time an advocate of non-violence sounds very strange. To go to Europe to fight and die for the British unloved? Gandhi explains: If we can help the British during the war, then perhaps they allow us to carry weapons, and it was at war, we learn to master them. "If the average population to voluntarily assist the Government in the hour of testing, the distrust will disappear, and the prohibition to carry arms will be withdrawn" (from the leaflets, written by Gandhi during a recruitment campaign in Gujarat). Of course, what tends to Gandhi. This contradicts the idea of spoon satyagrahi? Probably. Gandhi-man, but man, he loved the Arab proverb, "there is embodied an error. "But the idea of obtaining the short arms held Mahatma. Only once in his entire life, he returned to the thought of the possibility of Indians to take up arms at this time during World War II, when Japanese soldiers approached the borders of his country , but hopes for Britons, it was a little bit. Meanwhile, in the First India has the world in the British army of 985 thousand (almost a million!) Soldiers, the war ended. England among the winners and Indian recruits no longer need it. The people in the colony during the war, however, quite dissolved, has the courage to assert any rights and elections. To assess the state of affairs is going to commission headed by Judge Roulettom. Commission deal, which lacks native, will give recommendations as to carry out reforms. Proposed by the Commission and formed the basis of Bill Rouletta. What is its essence? All the "relief", admitted during the war were lifted. Restored rigid censorship. Was created secret political police. The Governor-General received extraordinary powers. Imposing military field courts. The authorities were right to arrest and imprison without trial any suspected of disloyalty to them. in fact, Bill Rouletta authorized the launching of the country 's terror.
Вот статья, появившаяся в индийском уголовном кодексе: “Всякий, кто словами, либо произнесенными, либо предназначенными для чтения, или жестами, или изображениями, или другими способами возбуждает или пытается возбудить недовольство правительством, учрежденный законно в Британской Индии, подлежит следующему наказанию: пожизненной ссылке на каторгу, или ссылке на другие сроки, или тюремному заключению на срок от трех лет со штрафом или без оного” (статья 124а). It is obvious that if you want almost any act can be interpreted as an attempt "to bring the Government of discontent" and give the person a period without any judicial procedure. This is the background of the conflict. Instead, thanks to the Indians got sticks and UNFULFILLED hopes the British Government did hit another painful. Gandhi immediately after reading the bill decided to satyagrahu for its abolition. How and where to start satyagrahu? The first campaign in South Africa has started spontaneously. In addition to a small circle of adherents to ashram in Transvaal Indians have not been any political organization. In the case of India there has long operated a political force, as the Indian National Congress (INC). What is the INC issue separate, but the commission must be pointed out that almost all further work Gandhi was held in a close relations with Congress. Sometimes he sharply divergent views on his leadership. Sometimes alone manage it. INC Gandhi has delegated full authority over them and even gave the official title of "dictator". Congress gave Gandhi the rostrum. Gandhi gave Congress millions of new supporters (literally the number of members of the authority through the INC Gandhi rose to ten million). Gandhi always looking for associates. INK real strength. Therefore, the first thing Gandhi appealed to the local committee of Congress "Sabha", the proposal to immediately undertake the training satyagrahi. He was supported by describing the committee Satyagraha Sabha. The English proverb says: "Well begun half-made." (Well begun half done). The first step is to be understood and supported. Only the mass of participants will be able to ensure success. Where should you start? For Gandhi is not characterized by the slogan: "We have embarked on a battle, but they see '. Satyagrah trying to think, even nuanced. Discussion in Satyagrahe Sabha lasts all night, but the decision of where to start and could not be accepted. All costs Gandhi falls asleep right at the table, continuing to reflect on Bill Rouletta. In half awakening when it comes to the idea. He tells everyone that it is necessary to begin with hartala.